Forest Structure and Composition of Trees in Two Sympatric Anthropoid Primates' Habitat in Ghana

Edward D. Wiafe
2.058 739


Tree composition, density and diversity were assessed within a monkey sanctuary that has been tempered with by human beings. The study took place in Buabeng-Fiema monkey Sanctuary in Ghana to document the vegetation structure of the non-human primate habitat. The habitat types were stratified into three as natural forest, mixed forest and cultivated area and 20 plots of dimensions 20m X 25m were established in each of the habitat types. All trees ‰¥ 10 cm diameter at breast height were identified and measured. In the mean number of trees per hectare was 17.5 (S.D=5.5, N=20), 12.7 (S.D=3.6, N=20) and 7.4 (S.D=7.4, N=20) in the natural forest , mixed forest and cultivated area respectively. The diversity, relative density and relative dominance differed in all the three habitat types. Moreover, the number of trees reduced with increasing height and basal area in all the three habitat types. The variations in the three habitat type provides good resources that may be required by the primates for survival but can promote and deepen human wildlife conflict.


Anthropoid monkey, Buabeng-Fiema, habitat types, wildlife sanctuary

Full Text:



Appiah-Opoku S. (2007). Indigenous Belief and Environmental Stewardship: A Rural Ghana Experience. Journal of Cultural Geography 24 (2): 79-98.

Addo-Fordjour, P., S. Obeng, A. K. Anning & Addo M. G. (2009). Floristic composition, structure and natural regeneration in a moist semi-deciduous forest following anthropogenic disturbances and plant invasion. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation 1: 21-37.

Anning A.K., Akyeampong S. P., Addo-Fordjour K. K., Anti, A., Kwarteng A.& Tettey I.. (2008). Floristic composition and vegetation structure of the KNUST Botanic Garden. Journal of Science and Technology 28: 103-116.

Carthew S. M., & Goldingay R. L. (1997). Non-flying mammals as pollinators. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12 (3): 104-108.

Chapman C. A., & Onderdonk. D. (1998). Forest without primates: Primate/Plant codependency. American Journal of Primatology 45: 127-141.

Chapman C. A. (1989). Primate seed dispersal: The fate of dispersed seeds. Biotropica 21:148€“ 154.

Chapman C. A. & Chapman L. J. (1996). Frugivory and the fate of dispersed and non- dispersed seeds in six African tree species. Journal of Tropical Ecology 12:491€“ 504.

Cowlishaw, G. & Dunbar, R. (2000). Primate conservation biology. Chicago and London. University of Chicago press.

Fargey P. J. (1991). Assessment of the conservation status of the Buabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary (unpublished report). Kumasi Ghana: Flora and Fauna Preservation Society, University of Science and Technology.75pp.

Fimbel C. (1994). The relative use of abandoned farm clearings and old forest habitats by primates and a forest antelope at Tiwai, Sierra Leone, West Africa. Biol Conserv 70: 277-286.

Ghazoul J. & Shiel D. (2010). Tropical rain forest ecology, diversity and conservation. CIFOR. Oxford University press.

Gibbs H. K., Brown S., Niles J. O. & Foley J. A. (2007). Monitoring and estimating tropical forest carbon stocks: making REDD a reality. Environ. Res. Lett. 2 045023. doi 10. 1088/1748-9326/2/4/045023.

Hall J. B. & Swaine, M. D. (1981). Distribution and ecology of plants in tropical rain forest. Junk, The Hague.

Hawthone W. & Jongkind C., (2006). Woody plants of Western African Forests. A guide to the forest trees, shrubs and lianes from Senegal to Ghana. Kew. Royal Botanic Gardens.

Kinnaird M. F. (1992). Competition for a forest palm: Use of Phoenix reclinata by human and nonhuman primates. Conservation Biology 6:101€“107.

Lieberman, D., Hall J. B., M. D. Swaine & Lieberman M., (1979). Seed dispersal by baboons in the Shai Hills, Ghana. Ecology 60: 65€“75.

Oates, J. F., Whitesides G. H., Davis A. G., Waterman P. G., Green S. M., Dasilva G. L.& Mole S. (1990). Determinants of variation in tropical forest primate biomass: New evidence from West Africa. Ecology 71: 328-343.

Pappoe A. N. M., Armah F. A., Quaye E. C., Kwakye P. K. & Buxton G. N. T. (2010). Composition and stand structure of a tropical moist semi-deciduous forest in Ghana. International Research Journal of Plant Science 1(4): 95-106.

Thomas S. C. (1991). Population densities and patterns of habitat use among anthropoid primates in the Ituri Forest, Zaire. Biotropica 23: 68-83.

Tutin, C. E. G., Pannell R. J.& White F. (1996). Protecting seeds from primates: Examples from Diospyros spp. in the Lopé Reserve, Gabon. Journal of Tropical Ecology 12:371€“ 384.

Vordzogbe V. V., Attuquayefio D. K. & Gbogbo F. (2005). The flora and mammals of moist semi deciduous forest zone in the Sefwi Wiawso District of the Western Region, Ghana. West African Journal of Applied Ecology 8: 49-64.

Whitmore T. C. (1992). An introduction to tropical rain forest. Oxford, UK. Claredon Press.

Wiafe E. D. & Arku F. S (2012) Victims' perspectives of Lowe's Monkeys' (Cercopithecus campbelli lowei) crop raiding events in Ghana: A case of Buabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences 2 (2): 1-8.

Wrangham R. W., Chapman C. A. & Chapman L. J. (1994). Seed dispersal for forest chimpanzees. Journal of Tropical Ecology 10:355€“368.




ISSN: 2147-7493