Effects of Different Thinning Grades on the Spatial Structure of Pure Black Pine Stands
Black pine is very widely distributed in Turkey, with most stands managed by periodic harvesting to meet domestic wood demand. However, scientific knowledge about the spatial structure of stands after thinning is lacking. To correct this deficiency, 12 pure black pine stands in the Alaçam Mountains between 61 and 95 years of age were investigated. The stands were mapped according to spatial tree distribution and thinning grades were determined by both number of trees per hectare and basal area. The numbers of trees in the stands were between 590 and 2163 (before thinning) and between 269 and 1422 (after thinning). Spatial-structure analyses were carried out before and after thinning using a pair correlation function. Graphical illustrations were extracted and visually assessed. In addition, the total areas below and above the theoretical line (g=1) of the pair correlation functions were calculated, and the effects of thinning on these were determined. No change was observed in the slightly thinned sample stands (17, 35, 38, and 56) and only slight changes in the moderately thinned stands (18, 21, 49. and 53). The most striking differences were detected in the intensively thinned stands (59, 68, 76, and 78). Regular areas have increased in parallel with increased thinning applications. In other respects; clustered areas did not decrease along with the increased thinning. The pair correlation function provides a comprehensive explanation of the effects of thinning on stand spatial structure.
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