Effects of Seasonal Changes on Microbial Biomass and Respiration of Forest Floor and Topsoil under Bornmullerian Fir Stand

İlyas Bolat, Ömer Kara, Metin Tunay
1.926 501

Abstract


A significant parameter that links plants to soil is microbial biomass. Therefore, measurement of the biologically-active fractions of the soil organic matter, such as microbial biomass C, N and P, is a good way to quantify the quality of the soil. In this study, the seasonal dynamics of microbial biomass C, N and P and associated microbial properties were investigated in the forest’s floor (litter, fermentation and humus) and topsoil (0 5 cm) under a stand of Bornmullerian fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmülleriana Mattf.). According to One-Way ANOVA, the study showed that seasonal changes have a significant effect on the quantities of microbial biomass C, N and P and associated microbial properties in the forest’s floor and soil. For example, the greatest amounts of microbial biomass C, N and P in the forest’s floor and topsoil occurred during summer. Also, seasonal variations have significant effects on microbial biomass C, N and P in the forest’s floor and soil because they alter the climate and chemical characteristics of the soil. Annual releases of C, N and P through microbial biomass were higher in the forest’s floor than in soil. The results of this study indicated that variations in the microbial biomass and basal respiration during the different seasons are related to changes microbial activity.

 

 

Keywords: Basal respiration, biochemical properties, Cmic:Corg percentage, Cmic:Pmic ratio, metabolic quotient (qCO2)

 



Keywords


Basal respiration, biochemical properties, Cmic:Corg percentage, Cmic:Pmic ratio, metabolic quotient (qCO2)

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alef, K. (1995). Soil respiration. In: K. Alef, P. Nannipieri (eds). Methods in Applied Soil Microbiology and Biochemistry. London, San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press pp: 214–219.

Alvarez, E., Torrado, V.M., Fernandez Marcos M.L. and Diaz-Ravia, M. (2009). Microbial biomass and activity in a forest soil under different tree species. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry 8 (9): 878–887

Anderson, J. M. and Ingram, J. S. I. (1996). Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility A Handbook of Methods, 2nd edn. Wallingford, UK: Cab International, 221 p.

Anderson, J. P. E. and Domsch, K. H. (1989). Ratios of microbial biomass carbon to total organic carbon in arable soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 21: 471–479

Anderson, T. H. (2003). Microbial eco-physiological indicators to assess soil quality. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 98: 285–293

Anderson, T. H. and Domsch, K. H. (1985). Maintenance requirements of actively metabolizing microbial populations under in situ conditions. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 17: 197–203

Anderson, T. H. and Domsch, K. H. (1986). Carbon link between microbial biomass and soil organic matter. In: F.Megusar, M. Gantar (eds). Perspectives in Microbial Ecology. Slovene Society for Microbiology, Ljubljana, Mladinska knjiga, pp: 467–471

Anderson, T. H. and Domsch, K. H. (1990). Application of eco-physiological quotients (qCO2, and qD) on microbial biomasses from soils of different cropping histories. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 22: 251–255

Anderson, T. H. and Domsch, K. H. (1993). The metabolic quotient for CO2 (qCO2) as a specific activity parameter to assess the effects of environmental conditions, such as pH, on the microbial biomass of forest soils. . Soil Biology and Biochemistry 25: 393–395

Arunachalam, A. and Arunachalam, K. (2000). Influence of gap size and soil properties on microbial biomass in a subtropical humid forest of northeast India. Plant and Soil 223: 185–193

Bardgett, R. D. (2005). The Biology of Soil: A Community and Ecosystem Approach. 1st edn. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 242 p.

Bauhus, J. and Khanna, P. K. (1999). The significance of microbial biomass in forest soils. In: N. Rastin, J. Bauhus (eds). Going underground-ecological studies in forest soils. Trivandrum, India: Research Signpost, pp: 77–110

Bauhus, J. D., Pare, D. and Cote, L. (1998). Effects of tree species, stand age, and soil type on soil microbial biomass and its activity in a southern boreal forest. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 30: 1077–1089

Brookes, P.C., Landman, A., Pruden, G. and Jenkinson, D. S. (1985). Chloroform fumigation and the release of soil nitrogen: A rapid extraction method to measure microbial biomass nitrogen in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 17: 837–842

Brookes, P. C., Powlson, D. S. and Jenkinson, D. S. (1982). Measurement of microbial biomass phosphorus in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 14: 319–329

Brookes, P. C., Powlson, D. S. and Jenkinson, D. S. (1984). Phosphorus in the soil microbial biomass. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 16: 169–175

Bouyoucos, G. J. (1962). Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analyses of soils, Agronomy Journal 54: 464−465

Chen, C. R., Condron, L. M., Davis, M. R. and Sherlock, R. R. (2000). Effects of afforestation on phosphorus dynamics and biological properties in a New Zealand grassland soil. Plant and Soil 220: 151–163

Chen, C. R., Condron, L. M., Davis, M. R. and Sherlock, R. R. (2003). Seasonal changes in soil phosphorus and associated microbial properties under adjacent grassland and forest in New Zealand. Forest Ecology and Management 177: 539–557

Chen, T. H., Chiu, C. Y. and Tian, G. L. (2005). Seasonal dynamics of soil microbial biomass in coastal sand dune forest. Pedobiologia 49: 645–653

Devi, N. B. and Yadava, P. S. (2006). Seasonal dynamics in soil microbial biomass C, N and P in a mixed-oak forest ecosystem of Manipur, Northeast India. Applied Soil Ecology 31: 220–227

Diaz-Ravina, M., Acea, M. J. and Carballas, T. (1995). Seasonal changes in microbial biomass and nutrient flush in forest soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils 19: 220–226

Dilly, O. and Munch, J. C. (1998). Ratios between estimates of microbial biomass content and microbial activity in soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils 27: 374–379

Dilly, O., Bernhard. M., Kutsch, W. L., Kappen, L. and Munch, J. C. (1997). Aspects of carbon and nitrogen cycling in soils of the Bornhoved Lake district I. Microbial characteristics and emission of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide of arable and grassland soils. Biogeochemistry 39: 189–205

Dinesh, R., Srinivasan, V., Hamza, S., Manjusha, A. and Kumar, P. S. (2012). Short-term effects of nutrient management regimes on biochemical and microbial properties in soils under rainfed ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Geoderma 173-174:192–198

Gülçur, F. (1974). Soil Physical and Chemical Analysis Methods (In Turkish). İstanbul University Publication No. 1970, Forest Faculty Publication No. 201, İstanbul, Turkey: Kutulmuş Printing, 225 p.

He, Z. L., Wu, J., O’Donnell, A. G. and Syers, J. K. (1997). Seasonal responses in microbial biomass carbon, phosphorus and sulphur in soils under pasture. Biology and Fertility of Soils 24: 421–428

Hedley, M. J. and Stewart, J. W. B. (1982). Method to measure microbial biomass phosphate in soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 14: 377–385

Hedley, M. J., White, R. E. and Nye, P. H. (1982). Plant-induced changes in the rhizosphere of rape (Brassica napus var. emerald) seedlings. III. Changes in L value, soil phosphate fractions and phosphatase activity. New Phytologist 91: 45–56

Hernot, J. and Robertson, G. P. (1994). Vegetation removal in two soils of the humid tropics: effect on microbial biomass. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 26: 111–116

Hughes, S. and Reynolds, B. (1991). Effects of clear felling on microbial biomass phosphorus in the Oh horizon of an afforested podzol in Mid-Wales. Soil Use Management 7: 183-188

Insam, H. and Haselwandter, K. (1989). Metabolic quotient of the soil microflora in relation to plant succession. Oecologia 79: 174–178

Insam, H., Hutchinson, T. C. and Reber, H. H. (1996). Effects of heavy metal stress on the metabolic quotient of soil microflora. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 28: 691–694

Jenkinson, D. S. and Ladd, J. N. (1981). Microbial biomass in soil measurement and turnover. In: E. A. Paul, J. N. Ladd (eds). Soil biochemistry. Volume 5, New York and Basel, USA: Marcel Dekker Inc, pp: 415-471

Joergensen, R. G., Anderson, T. H. and Wolters, V. (1995a). Carbon and nitrogen relationships in the microbial biomass of soils in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests. Biology and Fertility of Soils 19: 141–147

Joergensen, R. G., Kübler, H., Meyer. B. and Wolters, V. (1995b). Microbial biomass phosphorus in soils of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests. Biology and Fertility of Soils 19: 215–219

Kacar, B. (1996). Plant and Soil Chemical Analysis, III. Soil Analysis (In Turkish). Ankara University, Faculty of Agriculture, Education, Research and Development Foundation Publications, No: 3, Ankara, Turkey, 705 p.

Kara, Ö. and Bolat, İ. (2008a). Soil microbial biomass C and N changes in relation to forest conversion in the northwestern Turkey. Land Degradation and Development 19 (4): 421–428

Kara, Ö. and Bolat, İ. (2008b). The effect of different land uses on soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in Bartın province. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 32 (4): 281–288

Kara, Ö., Bolat, İ., Çakıroğlu, K. and Öztürk, M. (2008). Plant canopy effects on litter accumulation and soil microbial biomass in two temperate forests. Biology and Fertility of Soils 45 (2): 193–198

Kara, Ö., Bolat, İ., Çakıroğlu, K. and Şentürk, M. (2014). Litter decomposition and microbial biomass in temperate forests in Northwestern Turkey. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 14 (1): 31–41

Karaöz, M. Ö. (1992). Leaf and litter analiysis methods (In Turkish). Journal of the Faculty of Forestry, Istanbul University, Series B 42 (1–2): 57–71

Khan, K. S. and Joergensen, R. G. (2006). Microbial C, N and P relationships in moisture stressed soils of Potohar, Pakistan. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 169: 494–500

Kramer, S. and Green, D. M. (2000). Acid and alkaline phosphatase dynamics and their relationship to soil microclimate in a semiarid woodland. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 32: 179–188

Mahia. J., Perez Ventura, L., Cabaneiro, A. and Diaz-Ravina, M. (2006). Soil microbial biomass under pine forest in the northwestern Spain: influence of stand age, site index and parent material. Investigaciones Agrarias: Sistemas y Recursos Forestales 15 (2): 152–159

Maithani, K., Tripathi. R. S., Arunachalam, A. and Pandey, H. N. (1996). Seasonal dynamics of microbial biomass C, N and P during regrowth of a disturbed subtropical humid forest in northeast India. Applied Soil Ecology 4: 31–37

Merino, A., Fernandez-Lopez, A., Solla-Gullon, F. and Edeso, J. M. (2004). Soil changes and tree growth in intensively managed Pinus radiata in northern Spain. Forest Ecology and Management 196: 393–404

Murrieta, V. M. S., Govaerts, B. and Dendooven, L. (2007). Microbial biomass C measurements in soil of the central highlands of Mexico. Applied Soil Ecology 35: 432–440

Nielsen, M. N. and Winding, A. (2002). Microorganisms as Indicators of Soil Health. National Environmental Research Institute, Technical Report No. 388, Denmark 1-84.

Odum, E. P. 1985. Trends expected in stressed ecosystems. Bioscience 35: 419–422

Olsen, S. R., Cole, C. V., Watanabe, F. S. and Dean, L. A. (1954). Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. Circular 939, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington DC.

Pankhurst, C. E., Doube, B. M. and Gupta, V. V. S. R. (1997). Biological indicators of soil health: synthesis. In: C. E. Pankhurst, B. M. Doube, V. V. S. R Gupta (eds). Biological Indicators of Soil Health, Wallingford, UK: CAB International, pp: 419-435

Patel, K., Nirmal Kumar, J. I. N., Kumar, R. and Kumar Bhoi, R. (2010). Seasonal and temporal variation in soil microbial biomass C, N and P in different types land uses of dry deciduous forest ecosystem of Udaipur, Rajasthan, Western India. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 8 (4): 377–390

Pietikäinen, J., Pettersson, M. and Bååth, E. (2005). Comparison of temperature effects on soil respiration and bacterial and fungal growth rates. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 52: 49–58

Plante, A. F. (2007). Soil biogeochemical cycling of inorganic nutrients and metals. In: E. A. Paul (ed). Soil microbiology, ecology and biochemistry, Canada: Academic press, pp: 389–430.

Powlson, D. S. and Jenkinson, D. S. (1981). A comparison of the organic-matter, biomass, adenosine-triphosphate and mineralizable nitrogen contents of ploughed and direct-drilled soils. Journal of Agricultural Science 97: 713–721.

Powlson, D. S., Brookes, P. C. and Christensen, B. T. (1987). Measurement of microbial biomass provides an early indication of changes in total soil organic matter due to the straw incorporation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 19: 159–164.

Priha, O. (1999). Microbial activities in soils under Scots pine, Norway spruce and Silver birch. Research Papers 731, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Helsinki.

Priha, O. and Smolander, A. (1997). Microbial biomass and activity in soil and litter beneath Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies and Betula pendula at originally similar field afforestation sites. Biology and Fertility of Soils 24: 45–51

Rowell, D. L. (1994). Soil Science: Methods and Applications. 1st edn. Longman Group Ltd. London, UK: Prentice Hall, 350 p.

Schimel, J. P., Gulledge, J. M., Clein-Curley, J. S., Lindstrom, J. E. and Braddock, J. F. (1999). Moisture effects on microbial activity and community structure in decomposing birch litter in the Alaskan taiga. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 31: 831–838

Sparling, G. P. (1997). Soil microbial biomass, activity and nutrient cycling as indicators of soil health. In: C. E. Pankhurst, B. M Doube, V. V. S. R. Gupta (eds). Biological Indicators of Soil Health, Wallingford, UK: CAB International, pp: 97-119

Stewart, J. W. B. and Tiessen, H. (1987). Dynamics of soil organic phosphorus. Biogeochemistry 4: 41–60

Tate, K. R., Speir, T. W., Ross, D. J., Parfitt, R. L., Whale, K. N. and Cowling, J. C. (1991). Temporal variations in some plant and soil P pools in two pasture soils of widely different P fertility status. Plant and Soil 132: 219–232

Tian, Y., Haibara, K., Toda, H., Ding, F., Liu, Y. and Choi. D. (2008). Microbial biomass and activity along a natural pH gradient in forest soils in a karst region of the upper Yangtze River, China. Journal of Forest Research-Jpn 13: 205–214

Vance, E. D., Brookes, P. C. and Jenkinson, D. S. (1987a). An extraction method for measuring soil microbial biomass C. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 19: 703–707

Vance, E. D., Brookes, P. C. and Jenkinson, D. S. (1987b). Microbial biomass measurements in forest soils: the use of chloroform fumigation–incubations methods for strongly acid soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 19: 697–702

Winding, A., Hund-Rinke, K. and Rutgers, M. (2005). The use of microorganisms in ecological soil classification and assessment concepts. Ectoxicology and Enviromental Safety 62: 230–248




All Journals hbarist@gmail.com

ISSN: 2147-7493