Melih Öztürk, Ercan Gökyer
2.114 395


Deciduous roadside vegetation exhibits seasonal patterns of foliage with varying colors and numbers. Hence the alternating percentage of the gaps within the roadside canopy allows changing percentages of light transmission throughout the year. The leafless roadside vegetation in winter is sequentially subject to budburst, flushing, and development stages until the summer, when the leaves are fully developed both in size and number. Then, defoliation follows senescence, and fading and fall stages occur in sequence until the vegetation becomes leafless in the winter. The percentage of light transmission, canopy gaps, and sunlight duration are different in these different stages. In this study, the seasonal pattern of light transmission and canopy gaps of deciduous vegetation along a rural road section that is surrounded by forest landscape and that connected two cities was monitored. The road selected for the study was located in Bartın watershed in Turkey. Hemispherical photographing and image processing techniques were used to analyze the percentage of light transmission and canopy gaps throughout a foliage year in between 2012 and 2013. During 22 field visits, 220 hemispherical photographs were taken from 10 points along 700 m of the experimental site. Percentage of light transmission, and canopy gaps data were evaluated together with the daily sunlight duration data from the meteorological station. The correlations (r) between mean sunlight duration (msd) and 1) the percentage of mean light transmission (mplt) and 2) the percentage of mean canopy gaps (mpcg) were -0.68 and -0.75, respectively. Both of the correlations were highly significant (P < 0.01). The seasonal patterns of mplt, mpcg, and msd were assessed considering both the roadside vegetation and the surrounding landscape, emphasizing travelers’ and drivers’ perceptions.

Full Text:



Ahern, J. (1995). Greenways as a planning strategy. Landscape and Urban Planning, 33, 131-155.

Antonson, H., Mårdh, S., Wiklund, M., Blomqvist, G. (2009). Effect of surrounding landscape on driving behavior: A driving simulator study. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29, 493-502.

Bonan, G., Levis, S., Kergoat, L., Oleson, K.W. (2002). Landscapes as patches of plant functional types: an integrating concept for climate and ecosystem models. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 16, 1021-1044.

Boyd, P., Byles, M., Cheifetz, A., Chisholm, J., Copland, A., Double, C., Frances, P., Gavira, A., Hammond, R., O’Hanlon, M., Hawthorne, L., Paxton, S., Riley, L., Stewart-Jones, H., Weeks, J., Whitehorn, T., Widdicombe, S., Wild, F. (1996). The A-Z Plant Directory. Dorling Kindersley Ltd., London, UK.

Cackowski, J.M., Nasar, J.L. (2003). The restorative effects of roadside vegetation: Implications for automobile driver anger and frustration. Environment and Behavior, 35, 736-751.

Chen, J.M., Cihlar, J. (1995). Quantifying the effect of canopy architecture on optical measurements of leaf area index using two gap size analysis methods. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 33, 777-787.

Chen, S.S., Jim, C.Y. (2008). The urban forest of Nanjing City: Key Characteristics and Management Assessment. In: Carreiro, M.M., Song, Y.C., Wu, J. (Eds.), Ecology, Planning, and Management of Urban Forests, International Perspectives. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, New York, USA, pp. 259-278.

Christen, D.C., Matlack, G.R. (2009). The habitat and conduit functions of roads in the spread of three invasive plant species. Biological Invasions, 11, 453-465.

Delgado, J.D., Arroyo, N.L., Arévalo, J.R., Fernández-Palacios, J.M. (2007). Edge effects of roads on temperature, light, canopy cover, and canopy height in laurel and pine forests (Tenerife, Canary Islands). Landscape and Urban Planning, 81, 328-340.

Devore, J., Farnum, N. (1999). Applied Statistics for Engineers and Scientists. Duxbury Press, USA.

Dignan, P., Bren, L. (2003). Modelling light penetration edge effects for stream buffer design in mountain ash forest in southeastern Australia. Forest Ecology and Management, 179, 95-106.

Forman, R.T.T., Godron, M. (1981). Patches and structural components for a landscape ecology. Bioscience, 31, 733-740.

Forman, R.T.T., Alexander, L.E. (1998). Roads and their major ecological effects. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 29, 207-231+C2.

Forman R.T.T., Deblinger, R.D. (2000). The ecological road-effect zone of a Massachusetts (U.S.A.) Suburban Highway. Conservation Biology, 14, 36-46.

Hansen, M.J., Clevenger, A.P. (2005). The influence of disturbance and habitat on the presence of non-native plant species along transport corridors. Biological Conservation, 125, 249-259.

Havlick, D.G. (2002). No Place Distant: Roads and Motorized Recreation on America’s Public Lands. Island Press, Washington, USA.

Hutchison, B.A., Matt, D.R. (1977). The distribution of solar radiation within a deciduous forest. Ecological Monographs, 47, 185-207.

Jim, C.Y., Chen, S.S. (2003). Comprehensive greenspace planning based on landscape ecology principles in compact Nanjing city, China. Landscape and Urban Planning, 65, 95-116.

Jurado-Pina, R., Pardillo-Mayora, J., Jiménez, R. (2010). Methodology to analyze sun glare safety problems at highway tunnel exits. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 136, 545-553.

Kucharik, C.J., Norman, J.M., Gower, S.T. (1999). Characterization of radiation regimes in nonrandom forest canopies: theory, measurements, and a simplified modeling approach. Tree Physiology, 19, 695-706.

Link, T.E., Marks, D., Hardy, J.P. (2004). A deterministic method to characterize canopy radiative transfer properties. Hydrological Processes, 18, 3583-3594.

Marsh, W.M. (2010). Landscape Planning, Environmental Applications. John Wiley and Sons, USA.

Mok, J.H., Landphair, H.C., Naderi, J.R. (2006). Landscape improvement impacts on roadside safety in Texas. Landscape and Urban Planning, 78, 263-274.

Nobis, M., Hunziker, U. (2005). Automatic thresholding for hemispherical canopy-photographs based on edge detection. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 128, 243-250.

Oke, T.R. (1989). The micrometeorology of the urban forest. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 324, 335-349.

Öztürk, M. (2015). Complete intra-annual cycle of leaf area index in a Platanus orientalis L. stand. Plant Biosystems-An international journal dealing with all aspects of plant biology, DOI: 10.1080/11263504.2015.1054446.

Öztürk M, Bolat İ, Ergün A. 2015. Influence of air-soil temperature on leaf expansion and LAI of Carpinus betulus trees in a temperate urban forest patch. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 200, 185-191.

Promis, A., Schindler, D., Reif, A., Cruz, G. (2009). Solar radiation transmission in and around canopy gaps in an uneven-aged Nothofagus betuloides forest. International Journal of Biometeorology, 53, 355-367.

Schleppi, P., Conedera, M., Sedivy, I., Thimonier, A. (2007). Correcting non-linearity and slope effects in the estimation of the leaf area index of forests from hemispherical photographs. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 144, 236-242.

TGDF (Turkish General Directorate of Forestry). (2006). Forest management plans of Ulus Forest Administration. Ankara.

TGDMRE (Turkish General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration). (2007). Digital geological maps of Zonguldak F-29 Section. Ankara.

TMFAL (Turkish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock). (2005). Digital soil maps of Bartın stream watershed. Ankara.

TSMS (Turkish State Meteorological Service). (2013). Daily meteorological data. Ankara.

Tutin, T.G., Burges, N.A., Chater, A.O., Edmondson, J.R., Heywood, V.H., Moore, D.M., Valentine, D.H., Walters, S.M., Webb, D.A. 1993. Flora of Europaea, Volume: I, Psilotaceae to Platanaceae. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

UNESCO (United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization). (1995). Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and National Heritage, Report of the World Heritage Committee Eighteenth Session. Phuket - Thailand, 12-17 December 1994 pp. 113. Retrieved from -

Velarde, M.D., Fry, G., Tveit, M. (2007). Health effects of viewing landscapes-Landscape types in environmental psychology. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 6, 199-212.

Viles, R.L., Rosier, D.J. (2001). How to use roads in the creation of greenways: case studies in three New Zealand landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning, 55, 15-27.

Waring, R.H., Running, S.W. (2007). Forest Ecosystems: analysis at multiple scales. 3rd edn. Elsevier Academic Press, UK.

Wolf, K.L. (2003). Freeway roadside management: the urban forest beyond the white line (Social aspects of urban forestry). Journal of Arboriculture, 29, 127-136.

Yaltırık, F., Efe, A. (2000). Dendrology, Gymnospermae-Angiospermae (in Turkish). İstanbul University Press,

İstanbul, Turkey.

Yu, K., Li, D., Li, N. (2006). The evolution of greenways in China. Landscape and Urban Planning, 76, 223-239.




ISSN: 2147-7493