Cover Image

Scots pine tree ring structure modifications and relation with climate

Semeniuc Anca Ionela, Cristian Sidor, Radu Vlad
1.525 198


In this study we assessed the tree ring structure modifications and the relation with climate in Scots pine from Aleșd region (Romania). Tree rings structures were analysed based on microscopic sections obtained from the core sample. The analysis on the area of the incomplete lignified cells (IC) and the lignified cells (CL) was made. The results show a high frequency of false rings, and unlignified cells. The tree ring with the highest unlignified cells part could be observed in the years 2007 and 1989. A reduced number of the unlignified cells were formed in the year 1998.  An anomaly was analyzed in the tree ring structure of the year 1986. The temperature below 10 °C in the second period of the growing season has stopped the process of lignification of the wood cell walls. This study confirms the influence of temperature on the formation of the Scots pine tree rings.


Key words: Scots pine, anatomical structure, radial growth, tree rings, temperature.

Full Text:



Antonova, G.F., Stasova, V.V. (1993). Effects of environmental factors on wood formation in Scots pine stems. Trees 7:214-219.

Camarero, J.J., Guerrero-Campo, J., Gutierrez, E. (1998). Tree-ring Growth and Structure of Pinus uncinata and Pinus sylvestris in the Central Spanish Pyrennes Artic and Alpine Research, Vol.30 pp.1-10.

Camarero, J.J., Olano, J.M., Parras, A. (2010). Plastic bimodal xylogenesis in conifers from continental Mediterranean climates. New Phytol185:471–480.

Denne, M.P., Dodd, R.S. (1981). The environmental control of xylem differentiation. In: Barnett JR, ed. Xylem cell development. Tunbridge Wells, UK: Castle House Publications Ltd, pp. 236–255.

Deslauriers, A., Rossi, S., Anfodillo, T., Saracino, A. (2008). Cambial phenology, wood formation and temperature thresholds in two contrasting years at high altitude in southern Italy. Tree Physiology 28:863-871.

Donaldson, L.A., (2002). Abnormal lignin distribution in wood from severely drought stressed Pinus radiata trees. IAWA J23:161–178.

Gärtner, H., Schweingruber, F.H. (2013). Microscopic preparation techniques for plant stem analysis. Verlag Dr. Kessel, Remagen-Oberwinter.

Gindl, W., Grabner, M., Wimmer, R. (2000). The influence of temperature on latewood lignin content in treeline Norway spruce compared with maximum density and ring width. Trees 14:409–414.

Gindl, W., Grabner, M., Wimmer, R. (2001). Effects of altitude of tracheid differentiation and lignification of Norway spruce. Canadian Journals Botanic 79:815–821.

Gindl, W., Grabner, M. (2000). A comparison of tree-ring features in Picea abies as correlated with climate, Iawa Journal, pp 403 – 416.

Gričar, Z., Zupančič, M., Čufar, K., Koch, G., Schmitt, U., Oven, P. (2006). Effect of Local Heating and Cooling on Cambial Activity and Cell Differentiation in the Stem of Norway Spruce (Picea abies). Annals of Botany Vol. 97, Issue 6 Pp. 943-951.

Gruber, A., Strobl, S., Veit, B., Oberhuber, W. (2010). Impact of drought on the temporal dynamics of wood formation in Pinus sylvestris. Tree Physiology 30(4): 490-501.

Cuny, H.E, Rathgeber, C.B.K. (2016). Xylogenesis: Coniferous Trees of Temperate Forests Are Listening to the Climate Tale during the Growing Season But Only Remember the Last Words! Plant Physiology 171: 306-317.

Kozlowsky, T.T., Pallardy, S.G. (1997). Growth control in woody plants. San Diego: Academic Press.

Larcher, W. (2003). Physiological plant ecology. Ecophysiology and stress physiology of functional groups, 4th edn. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Hoffer, M., Tardif, J.C. (2009). False rings in jack pine and black spruce trees from eastern Manitoba as indicators of dry summers. Canadian Journal Forestry Research 39:1722–1736.

Marchand, N., Filion , L. (2012). False rings in the white pine (Pinus strobus) of the Outaouais Hills, Québec (Canada), as indicators of water stress. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 42(1): 12-22.

Oberhuber, W., Stumbock, M., Kofler, W. (1998). Climate-tree-growth relationships of Scots pine stands (Pinus sylvestris L.) exposed to soil dryness. Trees 13:19-27.

Pacheco, A., Camarero, J.J., Carrer, M. (2016). Linking wood anatomy and xylogenesis allows pin-pointing of climate and drought influences on growth of coexisting conifers in continental Mediterranean climate. Tree Physiology 36(4):502-12. doi: 10.1093.

Piermattei, A., Crivellaro, A., Carrer, M., Urbinati, C. (2014) The ‘‘blue ring’’: anatomy and formation hypothesis of a new tree-ring anomaly in conifers. Trees 29:613–620.

Rossi, S., Deslauriers, A., Anfodillo, T. (2006). Assessment of cambial activity and xylogenesis by microsampling tree species: and example at the alpine timberline. IAWA Journal 27:383-394.

Rossi, S., Deslauriers , A., Gricăr, J., Seo, J.W., Rathgeber, C.B.K., Anfodillo, T, Morin, H., Levanic, T., Oven, P., Jalkanen, R. (2008). Critical temperatures for xylogenesis in conifers of cold climates. Global Ecology Biogeography 17:696–707.

Schmitt, U., Koch, G., Grüwald, C., Čufar, K., Gricăr, J. (2003). Wall structure of terminal latewood tracheids of healthy and declining silver fir trees in the Dinaric region, Slovenia. IAWA Journals 24(1):41–51.

Schweingruber, F.H., Eckstein, D., Serre-Bachet, F., Braker, O.U. (1990). Identification, presentation and interpretation of event years and pointer years in dendrochronology. Dendrochronologia 8:9–38.

Schweingruber, F.H. (1992). Wood structure and environment. Springer. 279 pp.

Thompson, D.G. (1998). Getting the species and provenance right for climate change. Irish Forestry Vol. 55, No. 2.

Vaganov, E.A. (1996). Cells of Tree Rings Reflect the Rise in Air Temperature during This Century. Doklady Biological Sciences 351 (1), 582-584.

Vaganov E.A., Hughes, M.K., Shashkin, A.V. (2006). Growth Dynamics of Conifer Tree Rings. Images of Past and Future Environments. Ecological Studies 183:1-354.

Wimmer, R., Strumia, G., Holawe, F. (2000). Use of false rings in Austrian pine to reconstruct early growing season precipitation. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 30:1691–1697.

Ziaco, E., Biondi, F., Rossi S., Deslauriers, A. (2014). Climatic influences on wood anatomy and tree-ring features of Great Basin conifers at a new mountain observatory. Applications in Plant Sciences 2( 10): 1400054.




ISSN: 2147-7493